While distantly get at times of the Greeks or Aztecs, references about basketball, the beginning of this modern game has its origins in a U.S. school in 1891. The promoter of this was one James Naismith, sports instructor at the YMCA (YMCA) in Springfield. James specified the thirteen rules of basketball which are still current, however there have been some changes to adapt to new times where the game mainly based on the speed with which points are scored and the dramatically write them down.
Caused by the long winters suffering Springfield, and the urgency of his students were kept entertained and in good physical condition, James considered creating a new game could be played indoors and in confined spaces. After spending several months studying existing sports and adopting the most attractive of each, Naismith achieving a set of requirements that should have this new sport
- Affinity for the ball.
- Easy to learn
- That could be played on any terrain
- Attack the target permanent
- That there is a balance between attack and defense
- Not an aggressive sport
That's how slowly and after several trials, James finally make the sport known as basketball basket (basket) and ball (ball), the image of the game was simple; be played only with hands and would aim to put the ball in a basket, when its name.
The basic principles were created by James:
1. The ball is spherical and can be launched with one or two hands regardless of their direction.
2. Any player can be placed on the pitch where you like and at any time.
3. You can not hold the ball and run with it.
4. The two teams will play together on the ground, but forbidden contact between players.
5. The goal should be elevated, horizontal and small in size so you have to resort more to skill than to the power
6. The teams would be comprised of nine players
The first official basketball game was played in the YMCA gymnasium on January 20, 1892. In 1894 he established the free shot, in 1897 regulates five players per team and in 1904 he defined the size of the court.
Women's basketball began in 1892 at Smith College when Senda Berenson, a physical education teacher, I make some changes to the rules of James to fit women. The first official match was played in the U.S. in 1893.
Basketball quickly spread throughout the United States and Canada and promoted to Olympic status in 1936. The sport is governed worldwide by the International Federation of Basketball Amateur (FIBA) and championships are held every so often.
Basketball remains the same since its inception, where only the strong physical contact prevails, the art and skill of each player. Basketball has become one of the most followed sports in the world.
In the decade of the 40 was the greatest show on ice hockey league, so the leaders decided to find a sport that could entertain the fans while he took a winter break. Thus was born the Basketball Association of America (BAA) with 11 teams of which only 3 are still holding, the Boston Celtics New York Knicks and Golden State Warriors. The BAA merged with other existing professional league at the time the NBL and thus form the National Basketball Association (NBA). Despite the efforts of the league leaders did not reach the popularity of ice hockey poseeia, until in the 80s, players like Larry Bird, Magic Johnson and Michael Jordan would consolidate the NBA is today considered the best league in the world.
On the ancestral origins of basketball there are many theories mentioning many sports or activities that our ancestors practiced in various parts. These theories hold that in ancient times around the world, a vast amount of ball games that they can predict the genesis of this sport, they dominated the play element, closely related to the religious and moral precepts established in each one of the cultures.
The games played by each of these ancient civilizations, in the context of their culture, represented not only the rest, leisure and recreation, nor it was a simple athletic competition, but was rather a ritual enrolled in a magical setting, intended to pay homage to their gods. So the ball game, symbolized one of its principal rites, born of imagination and spirituality and religiosity provided with a special. Also worth noting, knowledge of sports architecture, applied with geometric perfection and fitted with an impressive sculptural art, plus the internal rules of the games clearly indicate the ability of these societies to set standards.
So we find among the ancient origins of our sport are many theories, mentioning different sports that our ancestors practiced for over 3000 years. What are some examples: the cultures of Mesoamerica, working out ball games, ancient Rome with their ball games, ball games popular in the Middle Ages, and so on.
The more evolved cultures of Mesoamerica, performing games that were maintained for several civilizations and influenced the development of collective ball games in the North American Indian, among them are:
Thetechiques practiced by the Aztecs game consisting of a ball through a hoop.
The playing field consisted of two separate walls, amid which two stones were placed opposite each other and each with a hole that could hold the ball. The ball of solid consistency could bounce light that was made from a gum called ulli.
The essential condition of the game was passing the ball through stone arches I; vertical located in the center of the field, driving the ball with the knees, wrists or elbows.
This game provided with religious and mythological significance, saw the pitch as the world and the ball like a star, moon or sun, while the victory or defeat of the players expressed the ongoing struggle between light and dark, sometimes being up the sun and other the moon. The fact of winning the game belonged to an immortal feat, as a "loser of the game paid for his defeat with his own life by offering his blood as a sacrifice to the gods.
Game played by the Mayans. The most important pitch measuring 95 m. long by 35 meters. wide and was surrounded throughout by walls of 8 m. high, which are fixed in two large stone rings. The ball was made of rubber of a rubber tree in the forest. The basic condition of the game was to pass the ball through the rings of stone, which should throw the ball with your back, knees or hip. Thus it was extremely rare case in which the ball passed through the ring. The relationship of the game with the religious and cosmological meant a deep perception of the universe and mythology, which is why beheading, losing players accounted for a high distinction for their lives further.
Ball game practiced by the Maya who was to pass a rubber ball through a hoop upright stone subject to a stone wall at a height variable. In the chronicles of the Popol Vuh-, is delightfully referenced this game, framed within the larger movement's harmonic conception of the cosmos and the relationship of the ball spinning as an element in which the Mayan gods allegorically manipulated the universe. The Indian Creek. Cherokee and godlike. of North America, played a game of ball that was developed around a pole, it measuring up to 15 m. high, was installed in the center of a rectangular field. The game began throwing the ball into the air. for the player to gain possession of it, ran toward the pole or throw one of his companions to throw the ball and play with it a signal that was on top of this post.
Of the most popular games with balls in ancient Rome, stands out:
Ball game, where in a rectangular field provided midline, the players tried to take the ball through the hands launches, from side to side of the field to pass the finish line was left in front of them.
Sixteenth century work by an anonymous author, which contains religious beliefs, myths and historical legends of the Indians of Guatemala qilicliés
In the middle ages, balloon games were gaining popularity in many countries, including the best known are:
Game popularity in France in the seventh and eighth centuries AD, which was performed on a rectangular area demarcated a midline, two ends and two sides. The aim was not only meet to get the ball behind the line of the opponent (as in the jarpastum). but passing the ball through a hoop placed horizontally on a pole.
Other games that could well precede the origin of the current basketball are:
Popular game practiced in the Netherlands, where a tree at a height of 8 or 9 meters placed a Korf, in Dutch basket, which was a box plaited reeds that are trying to reach the ball.
Traditional game pirineicas native of the mountains, where Basque shepherds in their leisure time, entertained themselves playing to introduce stones at a distance and with a parabolic trajectory in a pot that is buried in a hole in the floor.
Argentina's traditional game that is played by teams on horseback and throwing a ball is fitted with leather handles, a basketball hoop with a net placed perpendicular to the ground.
While basketball was spreading in Europe, in its cradle, the United States, they continued attempts to improve playing conditions, to make basketball a game not only attractive but also to become one of the first precision sports .
During this time, the rules of the game, the gameplay and art experienced a great evolution.
Today, basketball is a sport practiced around the world, major changes in the game influenced the individual and team actions, increasing the technical skill and physical development of its practitioners.
The following table gives an idea of how this change has been taking place since its creation until today:
Birth of Basketball.
The game is played with a varying number of players in a field dimensions also variable, with a soccer ball and two periods of 15 min. each.
Adopted the concepts of organizing football and come 2 defenders and static positional 2 front and center that guides the actions of attackers and defenders.
Publication of the first regulation that consisted of 13 items.
Were thirteen rules with which they started playing basketball, which was formally constituted in 1891 for publication.
Based on the original regulation, began to apply the relevant alternatives, according to the special situations that were found to pass the time, but without losing sight of fundamental principles that created the game.
1. The ball must have the common characteristics and can be cast in any direction with one or two hands.
2. The ball can go in any direction with one or two hands but with his fist.
3. The player must not run with the ball but threw it necessarily from where you are. Establishing a tolerance for the player who is in trance to run quickly.
4. The ball may only hold one or two hands. The arms or body must not be used.
5. It is forbidden to push with his shoulder, holding, pushing, tripping or striking an opponent. Violation of this rule is a penalty, the second time the player will be disqualified until the next well, and if the violation is done intentionally to stay off the player until the end of the meeting and can not be replaced.
6.La violation of rules 2, 3, 4 and 5 represent a penalty.
7.Si a team commits the offenses in a row (without producing any by the adversary), the opposing team will win a point in his favor.
8.Se treatment given when the ball is released or bounce on the floor to the basket and stays there, provided that the opponents are not touched or moved. If the ball is on the edge and the opponent picks it up, mark somewhat in favor of the attacker.
9. When the ball is out of play will be returned to the ground by the first person to take. In case of dispute the referee would be responsible for throwing the pitch on a straight path. In 5 seconds the ball is returned to the field, in the event exceeded this time the ball spent in enemy hands.
10. The assistant referee judges the behavior of players, record faults and alert the referee when three consecutive fouls committed. It has power to disqualify men under regulation 5.
11. The referee determines when the ball is in play and keeps the time. Decides the validity of both the marker and control, along with all other functions normally entrusted to the arbitrator.
12. The match length is two times 15 minutes with 5 minutes of rest
13. The team that many more points during this time will be declared the winner, in the event of a tie can be extended until the first basket, according to the team captains.
It generalizes the joint actions of 5 attackers and 5 defenders. The first defenses that arise are of a man to man and the first type of attack was a counterattack disorganized.
Mexico is the first foreign country to adopt basketball.
Disappear the bottom of the basket, using braided rope nets.
The playing time consists of two periods of 20 min. To 10 min. Off.
Appears pivot, giving the player greater mobility and resources.
Basketball comes to Iran and China.
It limits the field and adopting a proper ball for basketball.
It includes a free throw to 6.09 m. basket for each offense.
Player appears free kick specialist, since he can choose the player who made them.
It begins with determining standards and lactic functions to players both offensively and defensively.
E basketball arrives in England
It appears the board and the free throw line is close to 4.60 m. basket
The middle-distance shots were made with both hands, being very similar to current chest pass, while short-distance releases were made with one hand.
Basketball comes to Brazil, then there would be extended to all South America.
The "amateur union" adopt rules governing the international level.
Authorizing dribble with both hands.
Vary the points, awarding a point free kick and two points for baskets.
L to appearance of the board gives the need of the rebound, which also offers the possibility of releases supported therein.
Definitively establishing that teams were composed of 5 players on the pitch
Regulations establishing the first female officer.
We introduce women's basketball in the Philippines.
It introduces the leather ball.
The game showed slow and static, making a careful selection of pitches.
We introduce basketball in Australia.
Is prohibited dunk after dribbling.
Basketball comes to Cuba, introduced by American soldiers.
The board is mandatory in all areas of basketball.
Need to recover as many launch failures arise the player specializing in the rebound.
It prohibits dribbling more than once.
1915 - 1918
Basketball is born joint committee, responsible to unify the regulations.
You can dunk after dribbling.
Anderson popularized the zone defense that was imposed on the individual, this defense affects the individual, introducing the concepts of buoyancy and support.
We introduce basketball in Yugoslavia.
It differs in the violations and penalties foul.
Accidentally appears the figure of the pivot player, with its consequent inner game between the post and center.
The player who committed the foul shall be the one to launch the free throw.
Basketball comes to Colombia, according to the most accepted theory about how basketball came to our country.
Basketball is presented as a demonstration sport at the Olympic Games in Amsterdam.
Introduces two referees in the direction of the games.
It eliminates double dribbling.
Regulating personal fouls, penalty determined as two free throws in the event that the player was making a pitch and a free throw for technical fouls
As far down field: 25x15 m. with 2x1 cm. Variation
Gin is based on the F.I.B.A. (International Federation of Amateur Basketball).
We introduce the three-second rule.
We introduce the midfield line. Being thus defined the field in two distinct parts (the front court and defense) and introducing the rule of 10 seconds.
After recipes, play resumed with a jump between two opponents in midfield.
The zone defenses are becoming stronger because of the appearance of the screen and below.
If a team is less than 5 players can continue playing.
The ground surface of the game must be hard avoiding turf.
The C.O.I. accepted as an Olympic sport basketball.
Each player can be reinstated per game twice.
In case of a tie, and after two extra periods elapsed, won the first team to become a basket in the third extra period.
Basketball is included in Olympic sports.
It integrates women's basketball to F.I.B.A.
It extends the number of reserve players from 2 to 5.
It includes three time outs per team.
After each basket and resumed the game by the team that just make the basket with a throw from the finish line.
Due to kick after basket from the base line, pressing begins to appear.
It popularizes the launch with one hand.
Death J. Naishmith and as a tribute to him opens the "Hall Of. fame "in which are inscribed the pioneers of the sport and its most celebrated characters.
First basketball tournament N.C.A.A. university with the participation of all universities in the United States.
In order to reduce the outputs of the field are fixed baskets to 1.22 m. of the final lines.
Is broadcast the first televised basketball games from Madison Square Garden.
In each set 2 official match referees, a stopwatch and a notepad.
Appears the first modern form of counterattack.
It legalizes and regulates the blockade.
The jump shot makes its first appearance.
In Chile marks the first female South American championship.
Published in Europe transparent glass panels.
Since this year is beginning to use the counter as a tactical attack.
The number of passes alternate players, and the time dead 7 to 4.
It establishes the right of choice in which the team can choose between a free kick or a throw from the lateral line.
It can lift the pivot foot at the start in dribbling.
Between the defender and attacker must keep a distance of at least 50 cm.
Restricted area is amended to expand its measures.
We developed the offensive game without the ball, introducing changes of pace and direction and feints of receipt.
With the development of launch and penetration inks agrees to develop the defensive resources against the dribble.
Is introduced with a change of hands dribble between his legs and behind his back.
Without any attempt to create a successful women's basketball.
The Russians used the tactic of "freezing the ball in attack."
The teams have 5 personal fouls, after which each offense is penalized with a free throw.
You set the time position of the ball within 24 seconds.
The score improved from 79.5 points to 93.1 on average.
They replanted the rule which prevents lifting the pivot foot before the ball leaves the player's hands.
The restricted zone takes the form trapezoid.
Establishing the rule of 30 seconds.
Due to the increasingly strong defenses, attacking players, are increasingly assisted by their peers.
During the last 5 min. Each foul play is penalized by two free throws.
It eliminates the rule of 10 sec.
The retention of the ball for more than 5 is. Under pressure would cause a jump ball.
American coaches are beginning to worry about especially defensive preparation, with subsequent evaluation of the fundamentals defensive techniques.
Makes its appearance the first mixed defenses.
Appears global press area as a need for a ball before it reaches the basket.
The American Basketball Association emerge.
Only 5 min. End of game: There is a right of option and also regulation of the field back and the 10 sec.
It emphasizes the most defensive pressure, where the ultimate goal is to get the ball.
The rule of 10 sec. And behind the applied field throughout the game, like the right choice.
Appear offensive tactic combination snack and systematic combination of various defenses, called "alternative defenses."
1975 - 1976
Fusion A.B.A. and N.B.A. articulated in the four geographical divisions-current sports: Atlantic, Central, West and Pacific.
From the 10 team fouls in each half is given the right to make two free throw shots.
It introduces the 3x2 in free throws.
It gives a free throw to make if I get the missing basket.
Defense is developed setting.
It adopts 3-point basket.
After shopping you can request timeout.
Reduced number of fouls per team and time to 8, after which you can throw 2 free throws.
In case of tie will be extensions until one team wins.
Map out the pass and play with rules.
Continuous play is developed.
He perfected the one on one, as the basic structure of the attacking play.
World Championships in Cali.
Disappears in the concept of Amateur FIBA, so adopting the name of FIB
It creates the line of the 6.25 m. beyond which the baskets are worth 3 points.
Techniques are developed 3-point shots.
Since the attacker does not exist so much defensive pressure is applied space attack.
Becomes very important the flow of play.
At the Seoul Games, U.S. hegemony lost for the first time.
The finals are played between teams from the united Sovietiza and Yugoslavia, a situation that leads to American trade association to organize the first professional team representing E. U. in the following Olympics.
Appear in the 1 +1 rule on free kicks from the seventh absence of the opposing team with the right to choice by the non-offending team.
3 arbitrators are adopted.
Punishable as a lack intentional personal fouls with clear strategic interest (after the game to stop the timer).
It removes the right of option.
The sanction of personal and technical fouls are cumulative.
It allows you to move your feet in the band saquees only use the pivot foot.
It allows the player above the rim in the ascendancy.
Athens is a tournament organized to commemorate the centenary of basketball.
The best basketball team ever assembled to date (The Dream Team), was the attraction in Barcelona olimpitos games.
It tends to homogenize the rules with the NBA. In pursuit of sport.
There is a strong tendency towards versatile player and a specialist.
Lines and dimensions: the lines should be drawn the same color as the neutral zone must be of a single block.
Support the board: should be placed a minimum distance of 2 m. the outer edge of the bottom line.
Included in the costume of black pants judges in exchange for gray.
A player can make a pass over the level of the ring to a teammate, for this you get over it and have a shot.
Throw-in: after missing a breach, violation or any other stoppage of play, the game is restarted with a throw of bands performed at the place nearest the i8nfraccion, except for the position directly behind the backboard
A player may not touch the ball when it is on a downward trend and completely above the rim, a restriction that applies only until the ball touches the ring or until it is clear that the ball will not touch.
Is renamed by the deliberate unsportsmanlike.
Any player or member of a team that is disqualified must leave the meeting site.
A coach is disqualified if he is punished with three technical fouls, as a result of unsportsmanlike conduct committed by any person or the bank. Or, if it is banned for two technical fouls its own products unsportsmanlike behavior.
Is deleted 1 plus 1, and punishes the faults after the seventh, with two free throws.
Free Kicks: During these launches a maximum of 5 players must occupy the spaces along the corridor of free throws, three of them opponents of the free-throw shooter.
The form of the game is totally new to facilitate the task of the annotators. The recorder does not have to write the minutes in case of failure, basket or downtime.
At the time of the pass or release, the pivot foot may be lifted, but can not return to the ground before the ball has left the (s) hand (s) player. At the time of dribbling out, the pivot foot can not get up before the ball has left the player's hands.
A player can make a pass above the ring to a teammate, for this you get over it and have a shot.
Only players registered on the scoresheet has rights to warm in the 20 minutes before the start of the meeting.
Once you start the free throw, players may not change their position in the hallways or in the rest of the field until the kick is completed.
The three-second violation should not pitarse if there is one of three circumstances:
A team player with ball control is out of the restricted zone.
A team player with ball control is in action basket and shoot the ball is out of their hands.
A team player with the ball control dribbling to the basket.